The identification of raptor as a substrate for p44/42 MAPK

Endocrinology. 2011 Apr;152(4):1264-73. doi: 10.1210/en.2010-1271. Epub 2011 Feb 15.


The adaptor protein raptor is the functional identifier for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), acting to target mTOR to specific substrates for phosphorylation and regulation. Using HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we confirmed the phosphorylation of raptor at Ser696, Thr706, Ser721, Ser722, Ser855, Ser859, Ser863, Thr865, Ser877, Ser881, Ser883, and Ser884 and identified Tyr692, Ser699, Thr700, Ser704, Ser854, Ser857, Ser882, Ser886, Ser887, and Thr889 as new, previously unidentified raptor phosphorylation sites. Treatment of cells with insulin increased the phosphorylation of raptor at Ser696, Ser855, Ser863, and Thr865 and suppressed the phosphorylation of Ser722. Ser696 phosphorylation was insensitive to mTOR inhibition with rapamycin, whereas treatment of cells with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of raptor at Ser696. In vitro incubation of raptor with p42 MAPK significantly increased raptor phosphorylation (P < 0.01), whereas phosphorylation of a Ser696Ala mutant was decreased (P < 0.05), suggesting MAPK is capable of directly phosphorylating raptor at Ser696. Mutation of Ser696 to alanine interfered with insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the mTOR downstream substrate p70S6 kinase. Incubation of cells with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin decreased the insulin stimulated phosphorylation of raptor, suggesting that the MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways may merge at mTORC1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Insulin / pharmacology
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Sirolimus / pharmacology
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Insulin
  • RPTOR protein, human
  • Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Sirolimus