Our studies in the mRen2.Lewis female rat, an angiotensin II- and estrogen-dependent model of hypertension, revealed that chronic activation of estrogen receptor GPR30 markedly reduces blood pressure in ovariectomized females. The present studies measured acute vasodilation to the selective GPR30 agonist G-1 and 17-β-estradiol (10(-9)-10(-5.5) M) in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric arteries from intact mRen2.Lewis females. Maximal relaxation was greater in mesenteric vessels versus the aorta for both G-1 (47% ± 8% vs 80% ± 5% of phenylephrine preconstriction, P < 0.001) and estradiol (42% ± 7% vs 83% ± 4% of phenylephrine preconstriction, P < 0.001). The GPR30 antagonist G15 attenuated the response to both estradiol and G-1. Removal of the endothelium or pretreatment with Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) partially attenuated vasorelaxation. Responses were not altered in mesenteric vessels from ovariectomized females. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed GPR30 expression in mesenteric endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and smooth muscle expression was confirmed in cultured cells. We conclude that estradiol-induced relaxation in conduit and resistance vessels from mRen2.Lewis females may be mediated by the novel estrogen receptor GPR30. The direct vasodilatory response of G-1 in resistance vessels presents one mechanism for the reduction in blood pressure induced by chronic G-1 administration.