The objective of this study was to compare home blood pressure (HBP) vs. ambulatory (ABP) and clinic (CBP) measurements in terms of their association with target-organ damage in children and adolescents. A total of 81 children and adolescents (mean age 13 ± 3 years, 53 boys) referred for elevated CBP had measurements of CBP (1 visit), HBP (6 days) and ABP (24-h). Seventy-six participants were also assessed with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and 54 with echocardiography. Average CBP was 122.1 ± 15.1/71 ± 12.9 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic), HBP 121.3 ± 11.5/69.4 ± 6.6 mm Hg and 24-h ABP 118.9 ± 12/66.6 ± 6.1 mm Hg. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was correlated with systolic blood pressure (BP) (coefficient r = 0.55/0.54/0.45 for 24-h/daytime/nighttime ABP, 0.53 for HBP and 0.41 for CBP; all P< 0.01). No significant correlations were found for diastolic BP. PWV was also significantly correlated with systolic BP (r = 0.52/0.50/0.48 for 24-h/daytime/nighttime ABP, 0.50 for HBP and 0.47 for CBP; all P < 0.01). Only diastolic ABP and HBP were significantly correlated with PWV (r = 0.30 and 0.28, respectively, P<0.05). In multivariate stepwise regression analysis (with age, gender, body mass index [BMI], clinic, home and 24-h ambulatory systolic/diastolic BP and pulse pressure, clinic, home and 24-h heart rate as independent variables), PWV was best predicted by systolic HBP (R(2) = 0.22, beta ± s.e. = 0.06 ± 0.01), whereas LVM was determined (R(2) = 0.67) by 24-h pulse pressure (beta = 1.21 ± 0.41), age (beta = 2.93 ± 1.32), 24-h heart rate (beta = -1.27 ± 0.41) and BMI (beta = 1.78 ± 0.70). These data suggest that, in children and adolescents, ABP as well as HBP measurements appear to be superior to the conventional CBP measurements in predicting the presence of subclinical end-organ damage.