WSTF does it all: a multifunctional protein in transcription, repair, and replication

Biochem Cell Biol. 2011 Feb;89(1):12-23. doi: 10.1139/O10-114.


Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) has emerged as an incredibly versatile nuclear protein. WSTF and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in which it exists, WINAC, WICH, and B-WICH, have been studied in a variety of organisms. This research has revealed roles for WSTF in a number of diverse molecular events. WSTF function includes chromatin assembly, RNA polymerase I and III gene regulation, vitamin D metabolism, and DNA repair. In addition to functioning as a subunit of several ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, WSTF binds specifically to acetylated histones and is itself a histone kinase as well as a target of phosphorylation. This review will describe the three known WSTF-containing complexes and discuss their various roles as well as mechanisms of regulating WSTF activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly / genetics*
  • DNA Repair / genetics*
  • DNA Replication / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Phosphorylation / genetics
  • Protein Binding / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics*
  • Vitamin D Response Element / genetics
  • Williams Syndrome / genetics*


  • BAZ1B protein, human
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Adenosine Triphosphate