Obesity causes a significant healthcare burden and has been shown to be an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and increasingly chronic kidney disease. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity and has been shown to drastically improve both blood pressure and diabetic control. However, the interaction of bariatric surgery and renal function is less clear. This review focuses on the effect of bariatric surgery on renal function both in the acute situation, with respect to acute kidney injury, and also on changes in renal function parameters post-bariatric surgery weight loss. The interaction of obesity, bariatric surgery, and nephrolithiasis as a precipitant of acute kidney injury will also be considered. The role of bariatric surgery in pre- and post-renal transplant recipients is discussed as well as possible mechanisms underlying the improvement in renal function.