Bone health issues in sarcoidosis

Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011 Jun;13(3):265-72. doi: 10.1007/s11926-011-0170-1.


Sarcoidosis affects the bone directly in only a minority of patients. Nonetheless, bone health should be considered in the management of all patients with sarcoidosis. Deficiency in vitamin D, an important contributor to bone health, has been linked to autoimmune disease incidence. Studies have shown that patients with sarcoidosis frequently have low levels of vitamin D-25 but may have normal or increased levels of vitamin D-1,25. In addition, granuloma formation has been linked to a failure of the innate immune system, which could be related to a deficiency in vitamin D, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Furthermore, many patients with sarcoidosis are treated with corticosteroids, which are known to induce osteoporosis. Therefore, bone health may be impacted in several ways in sarcoidosis--by direct involvement with granulomas, vitamin D deficiency, or corticosteroid therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Glucocorticoids / adverse effects
  • Granuloma / etiology
  • Granuloma / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / physiology
  • Osteoporosis / complications*
  • Osteoporosis / metabolism
  • Sarcoidosis / complications*
  • Sarcoidosis / metabolism
  • Vitamin D / physiology
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / metabolism
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology


  • Glucocorticoids
  • Vitamin D