Evaluation and commissioning of a surface based system for respiratory sensing in 4D CT

J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2010 Dec 4;12(1):3288. doi: 10.1120/jacmp.v12i1.3288.


The purpose of this study is to assess the temporal and reconstruction accuracy of a surface imaging system, the GateCT under ideal conditions, and compare the device with a commonly used respiratory surrogate: the Varian RPM. A clinical CT scanner, run in cine mode, was used with two optical devices, GateCT and RPM, to detect respiratory motion. A radiation detector, GM-10, triggers the X-ray on/off to GateCT system, while the RPM is directly synchronized with the CT scanner through an electronic connection. Two phantoms were imaged: the first phantom translated on a rigid plate along the anterior-posterior (AP) direction, and was used to assess the temporal synchronization of each optical system with the CT scanner. The second phantom, consisting of five spheres translating 3 cm peak-to-peak in the superior-inferior direction, was used to assess the quality of rebinned images created by GateCT and RPM. Calibration assessment showed a nearly perfect synchronization with the scanner for both the RPM and GateCT systems, thus demonstrating the good performance of the radiation detector. Results for the volume rebinning test showed discrepancies in volumes for the 3D reconstruction (compared to ground truth) of up to 36% for GateCT and up to 40% for RPM. No statistical difference was proven between the two systems in volume sorting. Errors are mainly due to phase detection inaccuracies and to the large motion of the phantom. This feasibility study assessed the consistency of two optical systems in synchronizing the respiratory signal with the image acquisition. A new patient protocol based on both RPM and GateCT will be soon started.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts
  • Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography / instrumentation
  • Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography / methods*
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Motion
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Respiratory Mechanics
  • Respiratory-Gated Imaging Techniques / methods*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Time Factors