Novel approaches to percutaneous gastrostomy have evolved because of catheter clogging and displacement, which is commonly seen with currently available gastrostomy catheters. Low-profile button gastrostomy catheters, designed to be inserted into mature tracts, have recently been inserted into fresh gastrostomy tracts. Catheter clogging rarely occurs with these low-profile devices. Catheter displacement remains a problem but new buttons can be inserted at the patient's bedside without the need for a return visit to the radiology department. A 90 to 100% success rate has been shown for placement of gastrostomy buttons. Pull-type endoscopic gastrostomy catheters can be placed radiologically using a standard puncture of the stomach and cannulation of the gastroesophageal junction. A guide wire is manipulated up the esophagus and out the mouth. The pull-type gastrostomy catheter is then attached and pulled down through the esophagus and out through the anterior abdominal wall. These catheters have very good retention devices and rarely become dislodged. Catheter clogging is also rarely seen, provided larger devices are used. Radiological placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes has been termed the "hybrid method" and has been shown to be cheaper than endoscopic and other fluoroscopic methods of gastrostomy.
Keywords: Percutaneous gastrostomy; button gastrostomy.