It is generally believed that early academic failure in school develops into a downward spiral of negative motivational and behavioral consequences. In this study, children with reading difficulties were compared with typical readers on questionnaires measuring ADHD symptoms and other behavior problems such as withdrawn symptoms, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, social problems, and aggression. The results revealed that reading difficulties and problem behaviors appear more independent of each other rather than problem behaviors being a consequence of reading failure. In addition, gender differences were negligible when examining the relationship between reading difficulties and subsequent problem behavior. Some implications for special education and intervention are suggested.
© 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.