Autism was first described by Leo Kanner in 1943. He described common features in 11 children, who were, among others, characterised by limited social interaction and lack of communicative skills. However, Kanner also described characteristics related to the gastrointestinal system. Subsequently, studies have related autism to chronic inflammation in the intestinal lining and to food allergies. If the severity of autism is affected, e.g. by a pathological gastrointestinal condition, there is a possibility that treatment of the secondary condition will lead to improvement in the primary ailment followed by increased well-being.