Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) results from prematurity and surfactant deficiency with contributing factors from barotrauma, volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity from supportive mechanical ventilation care and infection. These factors result in chronic inflammation with recurring cycles of lung damage and repair that impair alveolarisation and vascularisation in developing infant lungs. With advancement in the understanding of its pathophysiology and resulting therapy, BPD has evolved into a different disorder which has been coined the 'new' BPD. As these patients age, primary care physicians need to understand the impact on pulmonary function. This discussion reviews the pulmonary function outcomes resulting from BPD through later childhood and young adulthood.