Phosphate binders include calcium acetate or carbonate, sevelamer hydrochloride or carbonate, magnesium and lanthanum carbonate, and aluminum carbonate or hydroxide. Their relative phosphate-binding capacity has been assessed in human, in vivo studies that have measured phosphate recovery from stool and/or changes in urinary phosphate excretion or that have compared pairs of different binders where dose of binder in each group was titrated to a target level of serum phosphate. The relative phosphate-binding coefficient (RPBC) based on weight of each binder can be estimated relative to calcium carbonate, the latter being set to 1.0. A systematic review of these studies gave the following estimated RPBC: for elemental lanthanum, 2.0, for sevelamer hydrochloride or carbonate 0.75, for calcium acetate 1.0, for anhydrous magnesium carbonate 1.7, and for "heavy" or hydrated, magnesium carbonate 1.3. Estimated RPBC for aluminum-containing binders were 1.5 for aluminum hydroxide and 1.9 for aluminum carbonate. The phosphate-binding equivalent dose was then defined as the dose of each binder in g × its RPBC, which would be the binding ability of an equivalent weight of calcium carbonate. The phosphate-binding equivalent dose may be useful in comparing changes in phosphate binder prescription over time when multiple binders are being prescribed, when estimating an initial binder prescription, and also in phosphate kinetic modeling.
© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.