In March 2009, a swine origin influenza A (2009 H1N1) virus was introduced into the human population and quickly spread from North America to multiple continents. Human serologic studies suggest that seasonal influenza virus vaccination or infection would provide little cross-reactive serologic immunity to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. However, the efficacy of seasonal influenza infection or vaccination against 2009 H1N1 virus replication and transmission has not been adequately evaluated in vivo. Here, ferrets received one or two doses of the US licensed 2008-2009 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) intranasally. An additional group of ferrets were inoculated with the A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) virus to model immunity induced by seasonal influenza virus infection. All vaccinated and infected animals possessed high titer homologous hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibodies, with no demonstrable cross-reactive antibodies against 2009 H1N1 virus. However, in comparison to non-immune controls, immunized ferrets challenged with pandemic A/Mexico/4482/09 virus displayed a significant reduction in body temperature and virus shedding. The impact of single-dose LAIV inoculation on 2009 H1N1 disease and virus transmission was also measured in vaccinated ferrets that were challenged with pandemic A/Netherlands/1132/09 virus. Although a single dose of LAIV reduced virus shedding and the frequency of transmission following homologous seasonal virus challenge, it failed to reduce respiratory droplet transmission of 2009 H1N1 virus. The results demonstrate that prior immunization with seasonal LAIV or H1N1 virus infection provides some cross-protection against the 2009 H1N1 virus, but had no significant effect on the transmission efficiency of the 2009 H1N1 virus.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.