The role of inflammation in prostate diseases is suggested by the presence of inflammatory cells within the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Prostate Cancer (PC). Inflammation suggests influence a balance between prostate cell growth and apoptosis by increasing microenvironment around prostate factors such as cytokines, COX-2 and oxidative stress. These factors stimulate proliferation and minimize cell apoptosis. In vitro studies showed an over expression of these inflammatory markers in BPH and PC compared normal tissue. There were also inflammatory marker differences between BPH and PC, which was more severe inflammation process in PC. Another basic difference was a gene polymorphism in PC. Targeting the microenvironment may represent a promising therapeutic approach for prostate disease. Many epidemiological studies showed a beneficial effect of drug that influences inflammation such as non steroidal anti-Inflammatory drugs, antioxidant compound in food or supplements and vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists. These drugs need more investigation to prove their function as chemoprevention of prostatic disease.