Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011 Jan-Feb;44(1):22-5. doi: 10.1590/s0037-86822011000100006.

Abstract

Introduction: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM) is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up.

Methods: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009.

Results: Fourteen (3.8%) cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up.

Conclusions: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Central Nervous System Fungal Infections / drug therapy*
  • Central Nervous System Fungal Infections / microbiology
  • Female
  • Fluconazole / therapeutic use*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis / drug therapy*
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis / microbiology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination / therapeutic use*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Antifungal Agents
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
  • Fluconazole