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Review
. 2012 Jan;49(1):182-205.
doi: 10.1177/0300985811398252. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Primary Neoplasms of Bones in Mice: Retrospective Study and Review of Literature

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Free PMC article
Review

Primary Neoplasms of Bones in Mice: Retrospective Study and Review of Literature

A M Kavirayani et al. Vet Pathol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

To compare and summarize the mechanisms, frequencies of occurrence, and classification schemes of spontaneous, experimental, and genetically engineered mouse skeletal neoplasms, the literature was reviewed, and archived case material at The Jackson Laboratory was examined. The frequency of occurrence of spontaneous bone neoplasms was less than 1% for most strains, with the exceptions of osteomas in CF-1 (5.5% and 10% in two studies) and OF-1 outbred strains (35%), and osteosarcomas in NOD/ShiLtJ (11.5%) and NOD-derived (7.1%) mice. The frequency was 100% for osteochondromas induced by conditional inactivation of exostoses (multiple) 1 (Ext1) in chondrocytes, osteosarcomas induced by tibial intramedullary inoculation of Moloney murine sarcoma virus, and osteosarcomas induced by conditional inactivation of Trp53-with or without inactivation of Rb1-in osteoblast precursors. Spontaneous osteogenic neoplasms were more frequent than spontaneous cartilaginous and vascular types. Malignant neoplasms were more frequent than benign ones. The age of occurrence for spontaneous neoplasms ranged from 37 to 720 days (M = 316.35) for benign neoplasms and 35 to 990 (M = 299.28) days for malignant. In genetically engineered mice, the average age of occurrence ranged from 28 to 70 days for benign and from 35 to 690 days for malignant. Histologically, nonosteogenic neoplasms were similar across strains and mutant stocks; osteogenic neoplasms exhibited greater diversity. This comparison and summarization of mouse bone neoplasms provides valuable information for the selection of strains to create, compare, and validate models of bone neoplasms.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The authors declared that they received no commercial financial support for research or authorship of this article.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Cranium; NOD.129P2(B6)-B2mtm1Unc/J mouse. There is a chondroma (Ch) arising from the squamosal bone. Note the circumscribed, non-invasive nature of the well-differentiated cartilaginous neoplasm. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Cranium; NOD.129P2(B6)-B2mtm1Unc/J mouse. Higher magnification of the chondroma in figure 1 illustrates an orderly proliferation of well differentiated chondrocytes (Ch) with a paucity of mitotic figures. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Hip joint, C57BL/6J mouse. There is a chondrosarcoma (Ch) arising from the coxofemoral articulation. Note the infiltrative nature of the well differentiated cartilaginous neoplasm. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Hip joint, C57BL/6J mouse. Higher magnification of the chondrosarcoma in figure 3 illustrates proliferating chondrocytes (Ch) within a hyaline matrix. There is a mitotic figure (arrowhead). Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Head; C57BL/6J mouse. There is a circumscribed bony neoplasm (osteoma) arising from the cranium.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Cranium; C57BL/6J mouse. There is an osteoma (Os) arising from the cranium. Note the non-invasive proliferation of well differentiated mature bone. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Cranium; C57BL/6J mouse. Higher magnification of the osteoma in figure 6 illustrates a benign proliferation of well-differentiated mature bone (Mb) with elements of bone marrow (arrowhead). Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Body; NOD.NON-Thy1a/J mouse. There is an infiltrative bony neoplasm (osteosarcoma) involving skeletal and soft tissues of the left forelimb.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Cranium, AKR/J mouse. There is an osteosarcoma (Os) arising from the maxilla. Note the disorderly proliferation of less-differentiated bone and the absence of bone marrow within the neoplasm. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Cranium, AKR/J mouse. Higher magnification of the osteosarcoma (Os) in figure 9 illustrates haphazardly arranged spindloid cells in an eosinophilic matrix. Note the focus of mineralized osteoid (arrowhead). Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Right hind limb, NOD/ShiLtJ mouse. There is an osteosarcoma (Os) arising from the os coxa. Note the highly cellular and disorderly proliferation of osteoblasts. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Right hind limb, NOD/ShiLtJ mouse. Higher magnification of the osteosarcoma in figure 11 illustrates osteoid (arrowhead) embedded within sheets of polygonal to ovoid neoplastic osteoblasts. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Left hind limb, NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mouse. There is a hemangiosarcoma (He) arising within the femur. Note the cavernous blood filled spaces that obliterate medullary architecture. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 14
Figure 14
Left hind limb, NOD.129P2(B6)-B2mtm1Unc/J mouse. Higher magnification of the hemangiosarcoma in figure 13 illustrates haphazardly oriented vascular channels (arrowhead) lined by neoplastic endothelial cells (En). Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 15
Figure 15
Right hind limb; NONcNZO10/LtJ mouse. There is an ossifying fibroma (Of) surrounding the metatarsal bone. Note the expansile neoplasm consisting of a modestly cellular fibrous portion and mature osseous elements mostly towards the periphery. Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Figure 16
Figure 16
Right hind limb; NONcNZO10/LtJ mouse. Higher magnification of the ossifying fibroma in figure 15 illustrates trabecular bone (Tb) embedded in a fibrous stroma (Fs). Hematoxylin and Eosin.

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