Ascaridoid nematodes referable to Brevimulticaecum heterotis (Petter, Vassiliadès et Marchand, 1979) Khalil, 1984 were recorded from the intestine of the African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Arapaimidae, Osteoglossiformes), from the Mare Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park, East Senegal and from Kosti, Sudan. Their examination using light microscopy and for the first time both environmental scanning electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed some previously unreported morphological features and made possible a detailed redescription of this species. The most important finding is the presence of dentigerous ridges on the inner edges of the lips, which confirms the attribution of this species to Multicaecum Baylis, 1923, where it was originally placed, and not to Brevimulticaecum Mozgovoy in Skryabin, Shikhobalova et Mozgovoy, 1951 where it had subsequently been transferred. A key to Brevimulticaecum and Multicaecum species is provided. Multicaecum heterotis is the first species of the genus to be sequenced. Partial sequences of the small ribosomal subunit (18S) and internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) have been analysed and compared with other nematode species.