This study was aimed at the transport across blood-brain barrier (BBB) of polysorbate-80 modified neurotoxin loaded polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticle (P-80-NT-NP) and its cytotoxicity. An in vitro model of BBB using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs) was established. The cytotoxicity of P-80-NT-NP was measured by the MTT assays, where neurotoxin (NT), nanoparticle (NP), neurotoxin nanoparticle (NT-NP) as control, and the permeability of P-80-NT-NP was determined by using of Millicell insert coculture with rBMECs and fluorescence spectrophotometry. MTT results showed that NT, NP, NT-NP and P-80-NT-NP were avirulent to rBMECs when the concentration of NT was lower than 200 ng x mL(-1). But the cytotoxicity of NP, NT-NP and P-80-NT-NP would be augmented accordingly as concentration increased (P < 0.01), causing obvious reductions of cell survival rate, with no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). When the concentration of NT was 150 ng x mL(-1), the permeability on rBMECs of P-80-NT-NP and NT-NP were both significantly higher than that of NT (P < 0.01), and the permeability of P-80-NT-NP was greater than that of NT-NP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, polysorbate-80 modified neurotoxin nanoparticles can transport across the BBB, while concentration of NT is greater than 200 ng x mL(-1), P-80-NT-NP has a little cytotoxicity against rBMECs.