Neuroendocrine tumors: current recommendations for diagnosis and surgical management

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2011 Mar;40(1):205-31, x. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2010.08.004.


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms found in diverse locations within the body. These tumors are commonly classified by the primary tumor's location, further subclassified by their differentiation, and finally segregated by their ability to hypersecrete peptides or amines. A number of groups have summarized their recommendations for diagnosis and therapy; however, the rarity of these lesions makes prospective randomized multiinstitutional trials difficult. Thus, these "consensus statements" often remain opinion-based. The authors have collaboratively developed a consensus on the current diagnostic work-up necessary for patients with NETs to help clinicians with this confusing field and followed this with some of the more advanced surgical techniques and considerations that are currently only available in specialty centers to show the evolving management of NETs.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis*
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnostic imaging
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • Somatostatin / therapeutic use


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • Somatostatin