The neuroanatomy of voice and speech is complex. An intricate neural network is responsible for ensuring the main functions of the larynx: airway protection, cough and Valsalva production, and providing voice. Coordination of these roles is very susceptible to disruption by neurological disorders. Neurological disorders that affect laryngeal function include Parkinson's disease, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, dystonia and essential tremor. A thorough neurological evaluation should be routine for any patient presenting with voice complaints suggestive of neurogenic cause. Endoscopic visualisation of the larynx using a dynamic voice assessment with a flexible laryngoscope is a crucial part of the evaluation and ancillary tests are sometimes performed. Otolaryngologic evaluation is important in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders that affect laryngeal function.
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