Comparative anti-infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) activity of (-)-pinene: effect on nucleocapsid (N) protein

Molecules. 2011 Jan 25;16(2):1044-54. doi: 10.3390/molecules16021044.


In the present study, anti-IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) activities of (-)-pinenes were studied by MTT assay, as well as docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The CC₅₀ values of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene were above 10 mM. And the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations (TD₀) of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene were determined as 7.88 ± 0.06 and 6.09 ± 0.31 mM, respectively. The two compounds were found to inhibit IBV with an IC₅₀ of 0.98 ± 0.25 and 1.32 ± 0.11 mM. The MTT assay showed that the inhibitions of (-)-pinenes against IBV appear to occur moderately before entering the cell but are much stronger occur after penetration of the virus into the cell. Molecular simulations indicated that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene specifically interact with the active site which is located at the N terminus of phosphorylated nucleocapsid (N) protein, with the former being more potent than the latter. The binding energies of them are -36.83 and -35.59 kcal mol-1, respectively. Results presented here may suggest that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene possess anti-IBV properties, and therefore are a potential source of anti-IBV ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Bicyclic Monoterpenes
  • Bridged Bicyclo Compounds / chemistry
  • Bridged Bicyclo Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Infectious bronchitis virus / chemistry
  • Infectious bronchitis virus / drug effects*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulation
  • Molecular Structure
  • Monoterpenes / chemistry
  • Monoterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Nucleocapsid Proteins / chemistry
  • Nucleocapsid Proteins / metabolism*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Protein Conformation
  • Ribavirin / pharmacology
  • Vero Cells


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Bicyclic Monoterpenes
  • Bridged Bicyclo Compounds
  • Monoterpenes
  • Nucleocapsid Proteins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Ribavirin
  • beta-pinene
  • alpha-pinene