Respiratory epithelial cytotoxicity and membrane damage (holes) caused by amine-modified nanoparticles

Nanotoxicology. 2012 Feb;6(1):94-108. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2011.558643. Epub 2011 Feb 28.


The respiratory epithelium is a significant target of inhaled, nano-sized particles, the biological reactivity of which will depend on its physicochemical properties. Surface-modified, 50 and 100 nm, polystyrene latex nanoparticles (NPs) were used as model particles to examine the effect of particle size and surface chemistry on transformed human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells (TT1). Live images of TT1 exposed to amine-modified NPs taken by hopping probe ion conductance microscopy revealed severe damage and holes on cell membranes that were not observed with other types of NPs. This paralleled induction of cell detachment, cytotoxicity and apoptotic (caspase-3/7 and caspase-9) cell death, and increased release of CXCL8 (IL-8). In contrast, unmodified, carboxyl-modified 50 nm NPs and the 100 nm NPs did not cause membrane damage, and were less reactive. Thus, the susceptibility and membrane damage to respiratory epithelium following inhalation of NPs will depend on both surface chemistry (e.g., cationic) and nano-size.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Epithelial Cells / drug effects*
  • Alveolar Epithelial Cells / metabolism
  • Alveolar Epithelial Cells / pathology
  • Amines / chemistry*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Caspases / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects*
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / ultrastructure
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / methods
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • Nanoparticles / toxicity*
  • Nanoparticles / ultrastructure
  • Polystyrenes / chemistry
  • Polystyrenes / toxicity*


  • Amines
  • Interleukin-8
  • Polystyrenes
  • styrofoam
  • Caspases