Phosphorus dynamics during hemodialysis

Hemodial Int. 2011 Apr;15(2):226-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-4758.2011.00538.x. Epub 2011 Feb 25.


We studied phosphorus (P) dynamics and its relation to urea dynamics in a wide range of dialyses by measuring predialysis and postdialysis serum P levels and all removed P and urea in dialysate during 455 hemodialyses. Dialyses were performed at different frequencies (range 3-6 treatments/wk); duration of dialysis (t) (range 80-560 minutes), varied blood and dialysate flow, and with high-flux and low-flux membranes. Kt/V-P, Kt/V-urea, weekly removal of P-and urea and removal volumes (Vr) and their relationships to varying dialyses, and predialysis concentrations, and protein catabolic rates were studied in linear and multiple regression analyses. A weekly dialysis time of > 30 hours was needed to maintain serum P concentration normal without the use of phosphate binders. Vr-P as a percentage of body weight was dependent on predialysis serum P and increased steeply as predialysis serum P decreased and dialysis time was prolonged. There was no relationship between Vr-urea and Vr-P. Phosphorus removal per week was mainly dependent on weekly frequency, and time on dialysis and > 38 h/wk were necessary to remove the recommended P intake. Phosphorus shows highly variable dynamics during dialysis. The body maintains extracellular P concentration by releasing P from large compartments when the dialysis time is prolonged and the serum concentration of P decreases during dialysis. Vr-P shows huge variation between patients and in an individual patient, depending on predialysis serum P. Kt/V is inaccurate in describing P removal. To remove P efficiently, it is most important to perform long and more frequent hemodialysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / metabolism*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphates / blood
  • Phosphates / metabolism*
  • Renal Dialysis / methods*
  • Young Adult


  • Phosphates