Worldwide, resistance of Gram-negative micro-organisms to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems owing to β-lactamases is an increasing problem. Although the CTX-M, TEM and SHV extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are most widely disseminated, other β-lactamase families have also recently emerged, such as plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases and carbapenemases. Here we describe a new set of multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with one amplification protocol enabling detection of 25 prevalent β-lactamase families, including ESBLs, carbapenemases, plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases and OXA β-lactamases.
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