The bioactive principles contained in blueberries (Vaccinium) are various kind of anthocyanins (anthocyanidins, or phenolic aglycone, conjugated with sugar), chlorogenic acid, flavonids, alpha-linolenic acid, pterostilbene, resveratrol, and vitamins. After oral administration, anthocyanins can pass through blood-brain barrier and thus appear in various organs and brain. Improve visual function by increasing rhodopsin regeneration and ocular health is the earliest reported bioactivities of anthocyanin. Recent studies demonstrated the benefit of blueberries to prevent the age-related chronic diseases such as cancer, diabeties, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, neurodegeneration, obesity, and osteoporosis through its apoptosis, antioxidant, antiinflammation, and antiangiogenesis effects. Blueberries can eradicate microorganisms for the prevention of symptomatic urinary tract infections in women. Thus, blueberries are recognized as one of the most nutritious foods and cultivated worldwide. However, how to prolong the shelving time of fresh fruit, well utilize the leaf and stem to isolate the bioactive chemicals, improve quality consistency of juicy and dry products, all should be further concerned.