Background: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is considered a safe and effective way to administer insulin in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes, but achieving satisfactory and stable glycemic control is difficult. Several factors contribute to control, including fine-tuning the basal infusion rate and bolus type and timing. We evaluated the most effective type and timing of a pump-delivered, preprandial bolus in children with type 1 diabetes for a pizza "margherita" meal.
Subjects and methods: We assessed the response of 38 children with type 1 diabetes to a meal based on pizza "margherita" (with mozzarella cheese and tomato sauce) after different types and timings of a bolus dose.
Results: The glucose levels for 6 h after the meal were lower (i.e., closer to the therapeutic target of <140 mg/dL) when the bolus doses were administered as a simple bolus 15 min before the meal (area under the curve [AUC] 0-6 h, 6.9 ± 14.9 mg/dL/min) versus a simple bolus administered immediately before the meal (AUC 0-6 h, 4.2 ± 25.9 mg/dL/min) (P = not significant) versus a double-wave bolus 30/70 extended over a 6-h period administered 15 min before the meal (AUC 0-6 h, 1.9 ± 21.3 mg/dL/min) (P = not significant) versus a double-wave bolus 30/70 extended over a 6-h period administered immediately before the meal (AUC 0-6 h, 13.3 ± 15.6 mg/dL/min) (P = 0.01).
Conclusions: In the case of a pizza "margherita," our data support the injection of the simple bolus 15 min before a meal, rather than immediately before or delivered as a double-wave bolus, to control the glycemic rise usually observed.