The high prevalence of stimulant abuse and its harmful consequences make the screening, diagnosis, and referral for treatment of persons with stimulant abuse a top concern for primary care providers. Having a working knowledge of use patterns, clinical symptomatology, end-organ effects, and advances in treatment of stimulant abuse is essential. Although cocaine and amphetamine have different use patterns, duration of action, and so forth, the consequences of use are remarkably similar. Primary care is at the forefront of screening, brief risk reduction interventions, and diagnosis of medical sequelae, with referral to addiction specialist treatment when necessary.
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