Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging based on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography for superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformation--technical note

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2011;51(2):163-7. doi: 10.2176/nmc.51.163.


Direct surgery remains important for the treatment of superficial cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Surgical planning on the basis of careful analysis from various neuroimaging modalities can aid in resection of superficial AVM with favorable outcome. Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging reconstructed from time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography was developed as an adjunctive tool for surgical planning of superficial AVM. 3-T TOF MR imaging without contrast medium was performed preoperatively in patients with superficial AVM. The images were imported into OsiriX imaging software and the 3D reconstructed MR image was produced using the volume rendering method. This 3D MR image could clearly visualize the surface angioarchitecture of the AVM with the surrounding brain on a single image, and clarified feeding arteries including draining veins and the relationship with sulci or fissures surrounding the nidus. 3D MR image of the whole AVM angioarchitecture was also displayed by skeletonization of the surrounding brain. Preoperative 3D MR image corresponded to the intraoperative view. Feeders on the brain surface were easily confirmed and obliterated during surgery, with the aid of the 3D MR images. 3D MR imaging for surgical planning of superficial AVM is simple and noninvasive to perform, enhances intraoperative orientation, and is helpful for successful resection.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology*
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / physiopathology
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / surgery*
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods*
  • Male
  • Preoperative Care / methods*
  • Time Factors