We describe 20 patients with myeloma and 1 with primary amyloidosis from 15 centres, all with advanced renal failure, most of whom had PBSC mobilised using plerixafor following previous failed mobilisation by conventional means (plerixafor used up-front for 4 patients). For 15 patients, the plerixafor dose was reduced to 0.16 mg/kg/day, with a subsequent dose increase in one case to 0.24 mg/kg/day. The remaining six patients received a standard plerixafor dosage at 0.24 mg/kg/day. Scheduling of plerixafor and apheresis around dialysis was generally straightforward. Following plerixafor administration, all patients underwent apheresis. A median CD34+ cell dose of 4.6 × 10(6) per kg was achieved after 1 (n=7), 2 (n=10), 3 (n=3) or 4 (n=1) aphereses. Only one patient failed to achieve a sufficient cell dose for transplant: she subsequently underwent delayed re-mobilisation using G-CSF with plerixafor 0.24 mg/kg/day, resulting in a CD34+ cell dose of 2.12 × 10(6)/kg. Sixteen patients experienced no plerixafor toxicities; five had mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal symptoms that did not prevent apheresis. Fifteen patients have progressed to autologous transplant, of whom 12 remain alive without disease progression. Two patients recovered endogenous renal function post autograft, and a third underwent successful renal transplantation. Plerixafor is highly effective in mobilising PBSC in this difficult patient group.