Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that usually starts as a relapsing-remitting disease. In most patients the disease evolves into a chronic progressive phase characterized by continuous accumulation of neurological deficits. While treatment of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) has improved dramatically over the last decade, the therapeutic options for chronic progressive MS, both primary and secondary, are still limited. In order to find new pharmacological targets for the treatment of chronic progressive MS, the mechanisms of the underlying neurodegenerative process that becomes apparent as the disease progresses need to be elucidated. New animal models with prominent and widespread progressive degenerative components of MS have to be established to study both inflammatory and non-inflammatory mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss disease mechanisms and treatment strategies for chronic progressive MS.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis; chronic progression; inflammation; neurodegeneration; treatment..