ENCODE tiling array analysis identifies differentially expressed annotated and novel 5' capped RNAs in hepatitis C infected liver

PLoS One. 2011 Feb 16;6(2):e14697. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014697.


Microarray studies of chronic hepatitis C infection have provided valuable information regarding the host response to viral infection. However, recent studies of the human transcriptome indicate pervasive transcription in previously unannotated regions of the genome and that many RNA transcripts have short or lack 3' poly(A) ends. We hypothesized that using ENCODE tiling arrays (1% of the genome) in combination with affinity purifying Pol II RNAs by their unique 5' m⁷GpppN cap would identify previously undescribed annotated and unannotated genes that are differentially expressed in liver during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both 5'-capped and poly(A)+ populations of RNA were analyzed using ENCODE tiling arrays. Sixty-four annotated genes were significantly increased in HCV cirrhotic as compared to control liver; twenty-seven (42%) of these genes were identified only by analyzing 5' capped RNA. Thirty-one annotated genes were significantly decreased; sixteen (50%) of these were identified only by analyzing 5' capped RNA. Bioinformatic analysis showed that capped RNA produced more consistent results, provided a more extensive expression profile of intronic regions and identified upregulated Pol II transcriptionally active regions in unannotated areas of the genome in HCV cirrhotic liver. Two of these regions were verified by PCR and RACE analysis. qPCR analysis of liver biopsy specimens demonstrated that these unannotated transcripts, as well as IRF1, TRIM22 and MET, were also upregulated in hepatitis C with mild inflammation and no fibrosis. The analysis of 5' capped RNA in combination with ENCODE tiling arrays provides additional gene expression information and identifies novel upregulated Pol II transcripts not previously described in HCV infected liver. This approach, particularly when combined with new RNA sequencing technologies, should also be useful in further defining Pol II transcripts differentially regulated in specific disease states and in studying RNAs regulated by changes in pre-mRNA splicing or 3' polyadenylation status.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cluster Analysis
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling / instrumentation
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • HL-60 Cells
  • HeLa Cells
  • Hepacivirus / physiology
  • Hepatitis C / complications
  • Hepatitis C / genetics*
  • Hepatitis C / pathology
  • Humans
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / etiology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / genetics
  • Liver Cirrhosis / metabolism
  • Liver Cirrhosis / pathology
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / instrumentation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods*
  • RNA Caps / genetics
  • RNA Caps / isolation & purification*
  • RNA Caps / metabolism
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA


  • RNA Caps