Reactive oxygen species in photochemistry of the red fluorescent protein "Killer Red"

Chem Commun (Camb). 2011 May 7;47(17):4887-9. doi: 10.1039/c0cc05713d. Epub 2011 Feb 28.


The fluorescent protein aptly named "Killer Red" (KRed) is capable of killing transfected cells and inactivating fused proteins upon exposure to visible light in the presence of oxygen. We have investigated the source of the bioactive species through a variety of photophysical and photochemical techniques. Our results indicate a Type I (electron transfer mediated) photosensitizing mechanism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Electron Transport
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / chemistry
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Light
  • Luminescent Proteins / chemistry
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Photochemistry / methods*
  • Photochemotherapy / methods
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • killer red protein, Anthomedusae
  • red fluorescent protein
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins