Development of PCR markers for Tamyb10 related to R-1, red grain color gene in wheat

Theor Appl Genet. 2011 May;122(8):1561-76. doi: 10.1007/s00122-011-1555-2. Epub 2011 Feb 27.


The grain color of wheat affects not only the brightness of flour, but also tolerance to preharvest sprouting. Grain color is controlled by dominant R-1 genes located on the long arm of hexaploid wheat chromosomes 3A, 3B, and 3D (R-A1, R-B1, and R-D1, respectively). The red pigment of the grain coat is composed of catechin and proanthocyanidin (PA), which are synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. We isolated the Tamyb10-A1, Tamyb10-B1, and Tamyb10-D1 genes, located on chromosomes 3A, 3B, and 3D, respectively. These genes encode R2R3-type MYB domain proteins, similar to TT2 of Arabidopsis, which controls PA synthesis in testa. In recessive R-A1 lines, two types of Tamyb10-A1 genes: (1) deletion of the first half of the R2-repeat of the MYB region and (2) insertion of a 2.2-kb transposon belonging to the hAT family. The Tamyb10-B1 genes of recessive R-B1 lines had 19-bp deletion, which caused a frame shift in the middle part of the open reading frame. With a transient assay using wheat coleoptiles, we revealed that the Tamyb10 gene in the dominant R-1 allele activated the flavonoid biosynthetic genes. We developed PCR-based markers to detect the dominant/recessive alleles of R-A1, R-B1, and R-D1. These markers proved to be correlated to known R-1 genotypes of 33 varieties except for a mutant with a single nucleotide substitution. Furthermore, double-haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between red- and white-grained lines were found to necessarily carry functional Tamyb10 gene(s). Thus, PCR-based markers for Tamyb10 genes are very useful to detect R-1 alleles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Catechin / biosynthesis
  • Catechin / metabolism
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Edible Grain / physiology*
  • Frameshift Mutation / genetics
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • Genetic Markers / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • Pigmentation / genetics*
  • Pigmentation / physiology
  • Proanthocyanidins / biosynthesis
  • Proanthocyanidins / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Triticum / genetics*
  • Triticum / physiology


  • DNA Primers
  • Genetic Markers
  • Proanthocyanidins
  • proanthocyanidin
  • Catechin