Background: Several reports suggest diffusion of anticancer agents from bone cement may suppress tumor growth. New drug delivery systems have been developed that incorporate anticancer drugs into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to maintain high concentrations of anticancer drugs at local sites. We investigated whether CPC implants containing anticancer drugs and caffeine, which enhance the cytocidal effect of anticancer drugs, would enhance their antitumor effects on rat osteosarcomas (SOSN2 cells).
Methods: We calculated the release of cisplatin (CDDP) and caffeine from the CPC and bone cement. The following CPCs were prepared: CPC-only, CPC containing caffeine, CPC containing cisplatin, and CPC containing cisplatin and caffeine. We performed cell growth inhibition assays on SOSN2 cells using culture media previously used to incubate each CPC. We transplanted SOSN2 cells into the tibias of rats, excised the tumor 3 days after transplantation, implanted each CPC and observed subsequent tumor growth.
Results: The in vitro sustained-release test demonstrated greater amounts and more persistent release of CDDP and caffeine from CPC than from bone cement and also showed CPC could release the majority of its loaded CDDP and caffeine. Culture media containing CDDP and caffeine inhibited in vitro proliferation of SOSN2 cells, and this inhibitory effect was greater than the inhibition resulting from CDDP alone. Experiments with an in vivo rat model demonstrated greater tumor growth inhibition with CPC containing CDDP and caffeine than with CPC containing CDDP alone.
Conclusions: The study results suggest CPC containing CDDP and caffeine potentiate antitumor effects and may be effective as a local chemotherapeutic method of treating malignant bone tumors.