Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene is characterized by a spectrum of phenotypes. Recurrent nonsense mutations (Q163X and S194X) showing regional distribution segregate with an early onset, severe course of recessive CMT disease with early loss of ambulancy. Missense mutations in GDAP1 have been reported in sporadic CMT cases with variable course of disease, among them the recurrent L239F missense GDAP1 mutation occurring in the European population. Finally, some GDAP1 mutations are associated with a mild form of CMT inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. In this study, we characterize the CMT phenotype in one Polish family with recessive trait of inheritance at the clinical, electrophysiological, morphological, cellular, and genetic level associated with a new Gly327Asp mutation in the GDAP1 gene. In spite of the nature of Gly327Asp mutation (missense), the CMT phenotype associated with this variant may be characterized as an early onset, severe axonal neuropathy, with severe skeletal deformities. The mutation lies within the transmembrane domain of GDAP1 and interferes with the mitochondrial targeting of the protein, similar to the loss of the domain in the previously reported Q163X and S194X mutations. We conclude that the loss of mitochondrial targeting is associated with a severe course of disease. Our study shows that clinical outcome of CMT disease caused by mutations in the GDAP1 gene cannot be predicted solely on the basis of genetic results (missense/nonsense mutations).