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Somatic Coding Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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Somatic Coding Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Athurva Gore et al. Nature.

Abstract

Defined transcription factors can induce epigenetic reprogramming of adult mammalian cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Although DNA factors are integrated during some reprogramming methods, it is unknown whether the genome remains unchanged at the single nucleotide level. Here we show that 22 human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell lines reprogrammed using five different methods each contained an average of five protein-coding point mutations in the regions sampled (an estimated six protein-coding point mutations per exome). The majority of these mutations were non-synonymous, nonsense or splice variants, and were enriched in genes mutated or having causative effects in cancers. At least half of these reprogramming-associated mutations pre-existed in fibroblast progenitors at low frequencies, whereas the rest occurred during or after reprogramming. Thus, hiPS cells acquire genetic modifications in addition to epigenetic modifications. Extensive genetic screening should become a standard procedure to ensure hiPS cell safety before clinical use.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. hiPS acquired protein-coding somatic mutations
Somatic mutations in the gene NTRK3 were found in two independent hiPS lines but were not present in their fibroblast progenitors. Detailed information for all mutations is in the Supplementary Materials.

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