The human T cell-associated serine proteinase-1 (HuTSP-1) is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and is exocytosed upon their interaction with target cells. Here, we report that HuTSP-1 is able to convert single-chain human pro-urokinase into the active two-chain enzyme. Time-dependent activation by HuTSP-1 of recombinant human pro-urokinase as well as natural pro-urokinase derived from human melanoma cells was demonstrated in a chromogenic assay specific for active urokinase type plasminogen activator and in immunoblotting experiments revealing the conversion of single-chain into two-chain urokinase. Control experiments excluded plasmin as the activating agent. These data suggest a novel pathway for plasmin generation during T cell-mediated processes such as immune responses and extravasation of immune cells.