Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for assessment of mitral valve functional anatomy in patients with prolapse-related regurgitation

Am J Cardiol. 2011 May 1;107(9):1365-74. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.12.048. Epub 2011 Mar 2.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the additional diagnostic value of real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) for surgically recognized mitral valve (MV) prolapse anatomy compared to 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE), 2D-transesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE), and real-time 3D-transthoracic echocardiography (RT3D-TTE). We preoperatively analyzed 222 consecutive patients undergoing repair for prolapse-related mitral regurgitation using RT3D-TEE, 2D-TEE, RT3D-TTE, and 2D-TTE. Multiplanar reconstruction was added to volume-rendered RT3D-TEE for quantitative prolapse recognition. The echocardiographic data were compared to the surgical findings. Per-patient analysis of RT3D-TEE identified prolapse in 204 patients more accurately (92%) than 2D-TEE (78%), RT3D-TTE (80%), and 2D-TTE (54%). Even among those 60 patients with complex prolapse (>1 segment localization or commissural lesions), RT3D-TEE correctly identified 58 (96.5%) compared to 42 (70%), 31 (52%), and 21 (35%) detected by 2D-TEE, RT3D-TTE, and 2D-TTE (p < 0.0001). Multiplanar reconstruction enabled RT3D-TEE to differentiate dominant (≥5-mm displacement) and secondary (2 to <5-mm displacement) prolapsed segments in agreement with surgically recognized dominant lesions (100%), but with a low predictive value (34%) for secondary lesions. In addition, owing to the identification of clefts and subclefts (indentations of MV tissue that extended ≥50% or <50% of the total leaflet height, respectively), RT3D-TEE accurately characterized the MV anatomy, including that which deviated from the standard nomenclature. In conclusion, RT3D-TEE provided more accurate mapping of MV prolapse than 2D imaging and RT3D-TTE, adding quantitative recognition of dominant and secondary lesions and MV anatomy details.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional*
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / complications
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging*
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse / complications
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse / diagnostic imaging*