Type 1 diabetes, whose incidence is increasing in the youngest children, could have a long-term neuropsychological impact. Mood disorders are more frequent and some elements of cognitive performance, although within normal ranges, could decrease. In this review, we detail the contribution of animal models to current physiopathological knowledge. We summarize the main clinical studies regarding mood and cognitive performance in diabetic children. Finally, the advantages of imaging in this domain as related to brain development in children are discussed.
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