Pharmacological characterization of 1-(5-chloro-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (JNJ-42041935), a potent and selective hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor

Mol Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;79(6):910-20. doi: 10.1124/mol.110.070508. Epub 2011 Mar 3.


The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes represent novel targets for the treatment of anemia, ulcerative colitis, and ischemic and metabolic disease inter alia. We have identified a novel small-molecule inhibitor of PHD, 1-(5-chloro-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (JNJ-42041935), through structure-based drug design methods. The pharmacology of JNJ-42041935 was investigated in enzyme, cellular, and whole-animal systems and was compared with other compounds described in the literature as PHD inhibitors. JNJ-42041935, was a potent (pK(I) = 7.3-7.9), 2-oxoglutarate competitive, reversible, and selective inhibitor of PHD enzymes. In addition, JNJ-42041935 was used to compare the effect of selective inhibition of PHD to intermittent, high doses (50 μg/kg i.p.) of an exogenous erythropoietin receptor agonist in an inflammation-induced anemia model in rats. JNJ-42041935 (100 μmol/kg, once a day for 14 days) was effective in reversing inflammation-induced anemia, whereas erythropoietin had no effect. The results demonstrate that JNJ-42041935 is a new pharmacological tool, which can be used to investigate PHD inhibition and demonstrate that PHD inhibitors offer great promise for the treatment of inflammation-induced anemia.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Benzimidazoles / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase / chemistry
  • Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Lew


  • 1-(5-chloro-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Hif1a protein, mouse
  • Hif1a protein, rat
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Pyrazoles
  • Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase