Background: Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, defined as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, are critical conditions associated with frequent mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used to improve oxygenation, but its role remains controversial. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). We searched CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, International Web of Science, LILACS, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and CINHAL (up to January 31, 2010). Additionally, we hand-searched reference lists, contacted authors and experts, and searched registers of ongoing trials. Two reviewers independently selected all parallel group RCTs comparing iNO with placebo or no intervention and extracted data related to study methods, interventions, outcomes, bias risk, and adverse events. All trials, irrespective of blinding or language status were included. Retrieved trials were evaluated with Cochrane methodology. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed subgroup and sensitivity analyses to assess the effect of iNO in adults and children and on various clinical and physiological outcomes. We assessed the risk of bias through assessment of trial methodological components. We assessed the risk of random error by applying trial sequential analysis.
Results: We included 14 RCTs with a total of 1303 participants; 10 of these trials had a high risk of bias. iNO showed no statistically significant effect on overall mortality (40.2%versus 38.6%) (relative risks [RR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93 to 1.22; I² = 0) and in several subgroup and sensitivity analyses, indicating robust results. Limited data demonstrated a statistically insignificant effect of iNO on duration of ventilation, ventilator-free days, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. We found a statistically significant but transient improvement in oxygenation in the first 24 hours, expressed as the ratio of Po₂ to fraction of inspired oxygen (mean difference [MD] 15.91, 95% CI 8.25 to 23.56; I² = 25%). However, iNO appears to increase the risk of renal impairment among adults (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.16; I² = 0) but not the risk of bleeding or methemoglobin or nitrogen dioxide formation.
Conclusion: iNO cannot be recommended for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. iNO results in a transient improvement in oxygenation but does not reduce mortality and may be harmful.