Purpose: To analyze risk factors associated with poor visual outcome in patients with ocular sarcoidosis.
Methods: In this retrospective study, charts of 44 patients with uveitis and biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were reviewed. Ocular parameters evaluated were as follows: location, type of uveitis, visual acuity, presence of posterior synechia, iris nodules, vitritis, snowballs, chorioretinal lesions, retinal vasculitis, papillitis, macular edema, cataract, and glaucoma. Final visual acuity of the worst-seeing eye at last follow-up was the outcome considered in univariable and multivariable analyses. Visual acuity of the worst-seeing eye was stratified into 2 categories according to the threshold 20/50 (=20/50 and >20/50).
Results: A total of 44 patients with bilateral uveitis were studied. The majority of patients presented with panuveitis (52%), granulomatous type (61%), posterior synechia (62%). The most frequent vision-threatening complications were cystoid macular edema (56%) and cataract (56%). The median best-corrected visual acuity in the worst-seeing eye at presentation and at end of follow-up was respectively 0.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.26-0.80) and 0.63 (IQR 0.36-1.00). At univariable analysis, the presence of iris nodules (p=0.049), cystoid macular edema (p=0.007), and cataract (p=0.007) were clinically significant conditions for a visual outcome of 20/50 or worse in the worst-seeing eye. In multivariable analysis, cystoid macular edema (p=0.034) was the only statistically significant predictor associated with unfavorable visual outcome.
Conclusions: In this study, we attempted to find risk factors related to poor visual outcome in patients with ocular sarcoidosis. The results suggest that only the presence of cystoid macular edema was significantly associated with worst visual outcome.