Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an asbestos-related aggressive malignant tumor of mesothelial origin, shows limited response to therapy and overall survival remains very poor. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in asbestos toxicity. Here, we found that the patients with MPM had significantly higher serum levels of thioredoxin-1 (TRX) than control population. The patients with advanced-stage MPM showed higher levels of TRX than those with early-stage MPM. The difference in overall survival between the groups with lower and higher serum TRX levels was significant. Our data suggest that serum TRX concentration could be a useful clinical marker for MPM.