CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor that is highly expressed on effector T cells and plays an important role in T cell trafficking and function. CXCR3 is rapidly induced on naïve cells following activation and preferentially remains highly expressed on Th1-type CD4(+) T cells and effector CD8(+) T cells. CXCR3 is activated by three interferon-inducible ligands CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CXCL11 (I-TAC). Early studies demonstrated a role for CXCR3 in the trafficking of Th1 and CD8 T cells to peripheral sites of Th1-type inflammation and the establishment of a Th1 amplification loop mediated by IFNγ and the IFNγ-inducible CXCR3 ligands. More recent studies have also suggested that CXCR3 plays a role in the migration of T cells in the microenvironment of the peripheral tissue and lymphoid compartment, facilitating the interaction of T cells with antigen presenting cells leading to the generation of effector and memory cells.
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