Aim: The present study investigates the interaction of TLR4 and RAGE with their respective ligands as inducers of the inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-α. Also, the reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients and non-diabetic healthy controls (ND) were comparatively studied.
Methods: Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by sandwich Elisa, using kits supplied by Assay Designs (Ann Arbor, MI, USA). PBMNC from T2D and ND were incubated in the presence or absence of LPS, anti-TLR4 or anti-RAGE for 72 hours at 37°C under 5% CO(2). The final volume was adjusted to 300 μL in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After incubation, the cells were centrifuged, the supernatant collected and the cytokines measured.
Results: PBMNC from T2D were more sensitive to innate immune stimulation with LPS and monoclonal agonist anti-TLR4 than were cells from ND. The actions of LPS, anti-TLR4 and anti-RAGE potentiated the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in both groups. The simultaneous activation of monoclonal anti-RAGE and anti-TLR4 suggests that both antibodies used different receptors on the cell surface, but converged on the same PBMNC signaling metabolic pathways. This simultaneous activation induced a higher production of IL-6 and TNF-α in PBMNC from the T2D patients than from the ND subjects.
Conclusion: Our results clearly show an exacerbation of innate immunity in PBMNC with T2D that was possibly hyperglycaemia-induced. These data, when analyzed together, suggest the importance of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of T2D.
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