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Review
, 23 (3), 865-72

The Emerging Importance of Type I MADS Box Transcription Factors for Plant Reproduction

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Review

The Emerging Importance of Type I MADS Box Transcription Factors for Plant Reproduction

Simona Masiero et al. Plant Cell.

Abstract

Based on their evolutionary origin, MADS box transcription factor genes have been divided into two classes, namely, type I and II. The plant-specific type II MIKC MADS box genes have been most intensively studied and shown to be key regulators of developmental processes, such as meristem identity, flowering time, and fruit and seed development. By contrast, very little is known about type I MADS domain transcription factors, and they have not attracted interest for a long time. A number of recent studies have now indicated a key regulatory role for type I MADS box factors in plant reproduction, in particular in specifying female gametophyte, embryo, and endosperm development. These analyses have also suggested that type I MADS box factors are decisive for setting reproductive boundaries between species.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Schematic Representation of Type I and Type II MADS Box Transcription Factors. C-ter, the divergent C region; I, intervening region; K, keratin K domain; M, MADS box domain.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Type I MADS Box Genes Control Female Gametophyte and Seed Development. Differential interference contrast microscopy images of wild-type Arabidopsis developing ovules and seeds: female gametophyte at stage1 (A), female gametophyte at stage 6 (B), and embryo at globular stage (C). Type I MADS domain proteins are indicated related to their function in the corresponding developmental stages and their function in a specific process. AGL23 (A) is involved in the early phase of gametogenesis (M. Colombo et al., 2008). The agl23 embryo sac arrests at FG1. AGL23 also regulates chloroplast biogenesis, which occurs in the embryo at the globular stage (C) (M. Colombo et al., 2008). AGL80 ([B] and [C]) disruption affects central cell differentiation (Portereiko et al., 2006). AGL80 interacts with AGL61, and genetic evidence supports the yeast two-hybrid assays, as agl61 embryo sacs develop defective central cells (Bemer et al., 2008; Steffen et al., 2008). AGL62 (C) suppresses cellularization and promotes nuclear proliferation during early endosperm development (Kang et al., 2008). The role of AGL80 during endosperm development has yet to be clarified. Ap, antipodal cells; Cc, central cell; Ec, egg cell; E, embryo; End, endosperm; Syn, synergid cells. Bars = 20 μm.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Overview of Type I MADS Box Gene Expression in the Embryo Sac and Seed. Diagrammatic representation of expression profiles (in blue) of type I MADS box genes that have a function in female gametophyte and/or seed development.

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