Intravascular ultrasound images were employed to evaluate aortic coarctation before and after balloon angioplasty. Measurements obtained with use of an ultrasound imaging catheter correlated well with measurements made with digital aortography, both in the area of coarctation and in areas proximal and distal to it. The intravascular ultrasound images dramatically revealed dissection of the aortic wall and an intimal flap that was not appreciated on cineaortography or digital subtraction angiography. Intravascular ultrasound imaging may yield important morphologic information unavailable by other imaging techniques. Such information may allow more precise definition of the results of intravascular procedures and improve understanding of lesion characteristics predictive of a successful outcome.