Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance

Phys Sportsmed. 2011 Feb;39(1):74-84. doi: 10.3810/psm.2011.02.1854.


As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Athletic Performance / physiology*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Muscle Strength / physiology*
  • Physical Education and Training / methods*
  • Physical Education and Training / standards
  • Physical Fitness*