Purpose: Renal tumors consist of heterogeneous groups that frequently show complex and overlapping morphology, thus making it difficult to make a correct diagnosis. One of the most problematic differential diagnoses is to distinguish chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from oncocytoma. These should be distinguished by differences in their behavior and clinical outcome. Our study was performed to identify whether caveolin-1 and MOC-31 are useful immunohistochemical markers for differentiating chromophobe RCC from oncocytoma.
Materials and methods: We selected 23 chromophobe RCCs, 8 oncocytomas, and 25 clear cell RCCs and performed immunohistochemical staining for caveolin-1 and MOC-31.
Results: Caveolin-1 was positive in 20 (87%) of 23 chromophobe RCCs, 0 of 8 oncocytomas, and 21 (84%) of 25 clear cell RCCs. MOC-31 was positive in 22 (96%) of 23 chromophobe RCCs, 2 (25%) of 8 oncocytomas, and 14 (56%) of 25 clear cell RCCs. There was a statistically significant difference in the expression of caveolin-1 and MOC-31 between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma (p<0.001). In addition, clear cell RCC was also significantly different from oncocytoma in the expression of caveolin-1 (p<0.001) and was significantly different from chromophobe RCC in the expression of MOC-31 (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Caveolin-1 and MOC-31 can be useful markers in the differential diagnosis of chromophobe RCC, oncocytoma, and clear cell RCC.
Keywords: Adenoma, oxyphilic; Caveolin 1; MOC-31 monoclonal antibody, human; Renal cell carcinoma.