Objective: To identify the determinants of antibody responses to adjuvanted split influenza A (H1N1) vaccines in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases.
Methods: One hundred seventy-three patients (82 with rheumatoid arthritis, 45 with spondylarthritis, and 46 with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases) and 138 control subjects were enrolled in this prospective single-center study. Controls received 1 dose of adjuvanted influenza A/09/H1N1 vaccine, and patients received 2 doses of the vaccine. Antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay before and 3-4 weeks after each dose. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) and rates of seroprotection (GMT≥40) were calculated. A comprehensive medical questionnaire was used to identify the determinants of vaccine responses and adverse events.
Results: Baseline influenza A/09/H1N1 antibody levels were low in patients and controls (seroprotection rates 14.8% and 14.2%, respectively). A significant response to dose 1 was observed in both groups. However, the GMT and the seroprotection rate remained significantly lower in patients (GMT 146 versus 340, seroprotection rate 74.6% versus 87%; both P<0.001). The second dose markedly increased antibody titers in patients, with achievement of a similar GMT and seroprotection rate as elicited with a single dose in healthy controls. By multivariate regression analysis, increasing age, use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (except hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine), and recent (within 3 months) B cell depletion treatment were identified as the main determinants of vaccine responses; tumor necrosis factor α antagonist treatment was not identified as a major determinant. Immunization was well tolerated, without any adverse effect on disease activity.
Conclusion: DMARDs exert distinct influences on influenza vaccine responses in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Two doses of adjuvanted vaccine were necessary and sufficient to elicit responses in patients similar to those achieved with 1 dose in healthy controls.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01022905.
Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.